The Civil War Lineage of the 151st Infantry Regiment
Major Harold “Allen” Skinner
Commander 138th Military History Detachment
A person reading the historical lineage of the 151st Infantry Regiment will quickly realize the regiment is credited with 24 campaigns during the Civil War.  What is not readily apparent is the lineage combines the Civil War accomplishments of the 7th, 10th and 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiments. Originally organized in April 1861 as 90 day regiments, each regiment served briefly in eastern Virginia before mustering out in August 1861. Each subsequently reorganized in September 1861 with three year enlistees in response to President Lincoln’s call for long service regiments. After three years of active campaigning the 7th and 10th mustered out in September 1864, while the 11th remained active to the end of the war, mustering out in May 1865.  The accomplishments of each regiment were decisive to the conduct of several campaigns, shaped the successful outcome of the Civil War, and firmly established the reputation of Hoosiers as determined and reliable Citizen Soldiers.
The Outbreak of War
During the decades prior to the outbreak of the war, Indiana had little in the way of an organized militia. Instead, private citizens of means banded together to form independent militia companies which were good at close order drill and little else. The companies were locally supported, receiving no funding or supplies from the state or national governments. Also absent were national standards for equipment, uniforms and drill, so each militia detachment adopted their own uniform styles and method of drill; particularly noteworthy were the companies organized along Zouave lines, with flashy Algerian style uniforms and drill to match. 
On 16 April 1861, President Lincoln issued a call to the loyal states to raise 75,000 militiamen to suppress the outbreak of the Rebellion. The War Department set Indiana’s quota at six infantry regiments, totaling 4,683 officers and soldiers, enlisted for 90 days – the maximum call up permitted under law Indiana Governor Oliver P. Morton, a staunch Unionist, responded with vigor to the call by asking community leaders to organize militia companies and await further orders. Not content to wait at home, the newly formed companies, along with hundreds of individual volunteers, poured into Indianapolis. Lacking a prepared encampment, the state government quickly converted the state fairgrounds into Camp Morton, using barns and horse stalls as makeshift housing for more than 12,000 volunteers The volunteers received a cursory physical inspection to ensure the presence of a trigger finger, two good eyes and enough teeth to bite thru a paper rifle cartridge. Once organized, the volunteers elected their company lieutenants and company commanders. The company commanders elected the regimental officers, with the exception of the colonel and lieutenant colonel, which were appointed by Governor Morton. The appointed officers served at the direction of the governor and received no recognition or commission from the federal government.
Ltc. Mahlon D. Manson
To manage the mobilization, Morton appointed Lewis Wallace, a Crawfordsville lawyer and Mexican War veteran as the Adjutant General. Wallace was a good pick for Adjutant General; besides his wartime service as an Infantry lieutenant, Wallace had privately organized a militia company in Crawfordsville plus a platoon of cadets from nearby Wabash College. Despite a severe shortage of arms, uniforms and equipment, Wallace successfully organized six regiments which were mustered into federal service on 25 April 1861. In remembrance of the 1st thru 5th Indiana regiments organized during the Mexican War, the new regiments were numbered the 6th thru 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry regiments
Wallace took advantage of his position as Adjutant General to form the 11th Indiana from the cream of the prewar militia companies, so despite having started last the 11th Indiana was the first regiment to completely organize.< Wallace adopted Zouave drill methods for the regiment, and outfitted the soldiers in specially designed Zouave uniforms of gray trimmed in red. Wallace then successfully petitioned Governor Morton for command of the regiment. On 8 May 1861, Wallace and his regiment marched down Washington Street to the steps of the state house, where he received a set of hand sewn regimental and national colors from the ladies of Indianapolis. The 11th Indiana left Indianapolis the next day, en route to Evansville to garrison the port and block smuggling between Indiana and “neutral” Kentucky.
Colonel Ebenezer Dumont
The 7th Indiana was organized with companies formed mostly from Dearborn, Decatur, H endricks, Shelby, Johnson and Morgan counties. Governor Morton appointed Ebenezer Dumont of Vevay, another Mexican War veteran, as the regimental commander. The 7th remained at Camp Morton to drill and organize until 29 May when it departed to western Virginia as part of the buildup in the east.
The 10th Indiana was organized with militia companies and men from the Lafayette, Greencastle and Lebanon areas. The 10th remained in Indianapolis until 19 June when it departed for Virginia under the command of Colonel Mahlon D. Manson. Manson, a druggist from Crawfordsville, was also a Mexican War veteran, having served with the 5th Indiana as a Captain.
90 Day Wonders in Virginia
The 7th and 10th Indiana regiments were sent to western Virginia in to secure the vital railroad linking Maryland with the Northwest, and to protect the strongly pro-Union mountain country from Rebel depredations. The 7th Indiana fought in the first skirmish of the war at Philippi, Virginia, with the regiment providing the advanced guard for a Union attack to clear the Rebel garrison. At dawn on 3 June, Hoosier skirmishers engaged Rebel pickets, and in short order drove the disorganized enemy from the town. Compared to battles later in the war, Philippi was a minor skirmish – derisively termed “The Philippi Races” due to the hasty Rebel retreat – but with major strategic benefits to the Union cause. After the battle, pro-Unionist Virginians felt confident enough in the Union cause to convene the Wheeling Convention, which nullified the Virginia Secession and installed a pro-Union government.
Arriving later in Virginia than the 7th Indiana, the 10th Indiana participated in the final stages of the campaign to secure the western portion of the state. Organized as part of Rosecrans’ brigade, the 10th Indiana received orders in early July to prepare an assault on a Rebel fort blocking the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike. After a pre-dawn march on 11 July, the 10th Indiana drove in the Rebel pickets, and conducted a bayonet assault to capture the fort along with several cannons. The 10th Indiana’s victory helped tighten the Federal grip on western Virginia and the vital Baltimore and Ohio railroad.
Gen. Lew Wallace
After their frustrating diversion to Evansville, the 11th Indiana arrived in Maryland on 9 June 1861 to help secure the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Instead of passively manning a garrison camp, Colonel Wallace determined that an attack was the best form of defense. He organized an assault column to wipe out a Rebel encampment near Romney, Virginia, which he attacked on the morning of 14 June. Wallace’s attack caught the enemy by surprise, forcing the Rebels to retreat and to abandon large quantities of supplies and equipment. Wallace gained fame from the skirmish; not only for his daring but for the impressive forty-six mile march his regiment made in less than a day to conduct the attack.
Enlisted for Three Years or the War’s Duration
Following the western Virginia campaigns, the three Hoosier regiments returned home to parades, speeches and receptions, and were mustered out of federal service. Even as the regiments were in Virginia, President Lincoln issued a call for the formation of three-year regiments. Regimental officers successfully encouraged their soldiers to reenlist; by mid-September all three regiments had reorganized for Federal service under the same regimental commanders and with most of the same soldiers. After their mustering, the three regiments served in different theaters, so the remainder of this article will cover the experiences of each regiment separately.
The 7th Indiana
Return to Virginia
The 7th returned to the East, where it would remain until mustered out in 1864; the 7th was one of only five Indiana regiments which served exclusively east of the Appalachians. Soon after arriving in Virginia, the 7th fought in the battle of Green Briar on 3 October 1861. Soon after the battle the 7th Indiana was attached to the Army of the Potomac where the regiment would experience some of the bloodiest battles in the war. In March 1862 the 7th Indiana was assigned to the Federal V Corps operating in the Shenandoah Valley. On 23 March the 7th Indiana was on the march towards Kernstown, Virginia to support Federal forces in contact, when it collided with the enemy in a surprise meeting engagement. With its parent brigade, the 7th Indiana deployed into line and fought toe to toe with Garnett’s Brigade, part of the hard hitting Stonewall Jackson Division. After a three hour fight, Garnett’s Brigade withdrew in confusion, leaving the Federals in possession of the battlefield – the only tactical defeat ever suffered by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson’s troops during the entire war. In repulsing the Rebels, the Federal army suffered 691 casualties, with the 7th Indiana losing 7 killed, 33 wounded, and 9 missing. After Kernstown, the 7th Indiana remained in the Shenandoah Valley for two months fruitlessly marching and countermarching in response to raids by Jackson’s troops.  In June the 7th Indiana participated in an attack at Port Republic to block Jackson’s access to Washington D.C. In the fight, the Federal troops were outnumbered by Jackson’s division, which massed three artillery batteries on a lone Union gun section, driving the support troops to shelter. A squad from the 7th Indiana advanced under heavy enemy fire to secure and withdraw the two Union pieces to friendly lines. In August the regiment fought at Second Bull Run, losing sixteen men. Afterward, the Army of the Potomac marched north in pursuit of Lee’s army, eventually fighting the Battle of Antietam, where the 7th Indiana lost an additional ten men. In December 1862, the 7th Indiana briefly participated in General Ambrose Burnside’s bungled attack on Fredericksburg, fortunately without suffering casualties.
1863 –The Year of Decision
In April 1863, the army resumed the offensive under the command of General Joseph Hooker, who planned to outflank Lee and take Richmond. Instead, Lee boldly outmaneuvered the Federal army at Chancellorsville, smashing the Union flank and forcing the army to flee in disorder from Richmond. The 7th Indiana remained in reserve during the battle and saw little action. Following Chancellorsville, Lee marched north with the Army of Northern Virginia to invade Pennsylvania to gather supplies, and hopefully win international recognition for the Confederacy through a decisive victory. After maneuvering across the Pennsylvania countryside, Rebel infantry seeking supplies collided with Federal cavalry near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Once in contact reinforcements from both sides marched to the sound of the guns, which brought on a general engagement neither side had wanted. After the first full day of battle on 1 July, the beaten Federal line withdrew through Gettysburg to take defensive positions along Cemetery Hill. Although not engaged the first day, the 7th Indiana occupied a key position atop nearby Culp’s Hill and dug in for the evening. The Hoosier’s presence prevented the Rebels from taking the hill, which would have unhinged the entire Union position. On 2 July, Lee attempted to outflank the Union line, first on the left, then on the right alongside Culp’s Hill. In the late afternoon Ewell’s Corps launched attacks against the Union positions atop the hill, suffering heavy losses in exchange for a tenuous hold on the hill. Fighting resumed at dawn the next morning, with the Rebel army retreating after the failure of Longstreet’s attack (“Pickett’s Charge”) against the Federal center. Despite fighting behind entrenchment atop Culp’s Hill, the 7th Indiana suffered heavy losses during the battle.
1864 – Grant versus Lee
During the early part of 1864 the 7th Indiana remained continually in combat while General Ulysses S. Grant, now in overall command of the Union army, strove to destroy the Army of Northern Virginia in a series of horrific battles: The Wilderness, Laurel Hill and Spotsylvania, Bethesda Church and Cold Harbor. In May 1864, Private John N. Opel, from Decatur County, earned the Medal of Honor during the fighting in the Wilderness by single handedly capturing the colors of the 50th Virginia Infantry Regiment. During the siege of Petersburg, the 7th Indiana spent the summer performing skirmishing, raids and sniping in the entrenchments surrounding Petersburg up to the end of their term of service in September. In some instances, the skirmishes turned costly. The 7th Indiana fought in the minor battle of North Anna from 23-27 May, losing 8 dead with 31 wounded. In September a large number of expired soldiers returned home to Indiana, with the remainder of the regiment (a mix of late volunteers and draftees) amalgamated with the 19th Indiana. During three years of campaigning, the 7th Indiana lost approximately 9% of their total strength to combat deaths. In total the 7th Indiana lost eight officers and 108 soldiers from combat deaths, with two officers and 111 enlisted men dying from disease or non-battle causes – a total of 229 casualties.
The 10th Indiana in the Middle West
After leaving Indiana, the 10th Indiana marched to Louisville to join the Union forces garrisoning Kentucky. In January 1862, a Rebel column, commanded by General Felix Zollicoffer, advanced into Kentucky and blocked the important Cumberland Gap. Brigadier General George H. Thomas was given orders to attack the Rebel force and clear the strategically important Gap. Thomas’ division, with the attached 10th Indiana, marched thru a winter rain storm to Logan’s Crossroads, Tennessee in order to combine with another Union brigade before attacking Zollicoffer. The Confederate commander of Eastern Tennessee, General George Crittenden, detected the Union movements and ordered Zollicoffier to attack before Thomas could consolidate his forces. Unbeknownst to Zollicoffer, Thomas had already consolidated his brigades the night before the Rebel attack. The Rebels attacked at dawn on 19 January, and after some initial success Zollicoffer was shot down, and his demoralized army retreated in disorder. The Rebels withdrew from the Cumberland Gap which opened up Tennessee to Union invasion from Kentucky; more importantly Logan’s Crossroads was the first significant Union victory in the Civil War. The 10th Indiana figured prominently during the battle, standing their ground against a Rebel infantry brigade, “thereby earning an enviable reputation for gallantry, the Regiment at one time saving the day by its firm resistance of a desperate charge by Zollicoffer’s forces.”
Shiloh and Corinth
In March 1862, the regiment joined General Don C. Buell’s Army of the Ohio, which then marched to western Tennessee to join the Army of the Tennessee, commanded by General Ulysses S. Grant. Once consolidated, Grant’s army had orders to advance and capture the critical railroad junction at Corinth Mississippi. Forewarned, the Rebels attacked Grant’s unprepared command on 6 April 1862 near Shiloh Church, inflicting heavy losses and nearly pushing the Federal troops into the river. Buell’s army arrived at Pittsburg Landing in time to reinforce Grant’s army, which counterattacked the next day and drove the Rebels from the battlefield. After Shiloh, the combined Federal army slowly marched on Corinth, eventually ringing the city with siege works. Greatly outnumbered, the Rebels evacuated Corinth and withdrew deeper into Mississippi. From Shiloh to Corinth, the 10th Indiana saw little combat but the soldiers spent countless hours digging trenches and cutting wood to corduroy roads, all in the oppressive Mississippi heat.
After returning to Nashville, the 10th Indiana participated in the abortive attempt to seize Chattanooga, which Buell halted in reaction to a Rebel invasion of Kentucky in September 1862. The Rebel commander, General Braxton Bragg, planned to occupy Kentucky, install a pro-Confederacy government, and recruit from the state’s manpower pool. Buell, by several days of forced marches was able to consolidate his forces near Perryville, Kentucky. On the night of 8 October, skirmishers from the 10th Indiana were ordered out to reconnoiter the enemy lines, and then secure a small creek as a water source for the thirsty Federal soldiers. The Hoosier skirmishers briefly exchanged fire with the Rebel pickets, before withdrawing to report the creek was not held by the Confederates. During the Battle of Perryville on 9 – 10 October, the 10th Indiana remained unengaged due to the failure of the corps commander to support the Federal corps in contact with the enemy.
Following Perryville, the 10th Indiana was placed on detached garrison duty and remained in winter quarters until spring of 1863, when it joined Thomas’ corps, part of the Army of the Cumberland commanded by General William Rosecrans. In June, Rosecrans’ army successfully maneuvered Bragg’s army out of Tennessee, capturing the strategically important railroad city of Chattanooga in the process. Flushed with success, Rosecrans grew overconfident and divided his army to pursue the “disorganized” Rebel forces. Far from disorganized, Bragg’s army lay in wait near Ringgold Georgia, ready to trap and destroy an isolated Federal column. Bungled Confederate attacks on the 19th prompted Rosecrans to halt his advance and form a hasty defensive line astride Chickamauga creek. After his failure, Bragg reorganized his army to launch a consolidated attack on the morning of the 20th. Due to a miscommunication in orders, the Rebels charged into a gap in the defenses, breaking the Federal lines and leaving the road to Chattanooga unguarded. General Thomas, in command of the sole remaining Federal corps, withdrew in good order to Horseshoe Ridge, where he built a hasty delaying defense. Thomas’ battered troops stayed until dark, fighting off uncoordinated Confederate attempts to cut off the rest of the Federal army. After dark, Thomas withdrew from the field, forming the rear guard of the shattered Army of the Cumberland as it retreated into Chattanooga.
Ltc. William B. Carroll
The 10th Indiana was in the thick of the Chickamauga fight from the beginning as part of Croxton’s brigade, Brannan’s division, Thomas’ corps. Before the outbreak of the battle, Thomas’ corps made a nighttime forced march lit by burning fence rails in time to extend the left wing of the Union army and to protect the supply lines back to Chattanooga. Upon arrival at the Kelly House, General Brannan sent Croxton’s Brigade to eliminate a supposed isolated Rebel brigade. Instead of a single brigade, Croxton’s men ran into two Rebel divisions, reinforced with General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry, near Jay’s Mill – which were also advancing in an attempt to turn the Federal flank. Despite the disparity in numbers, Croxton’s men fought alone and unsupported for almost an hour. During the opening minutes of the engagement the 10th Indiana lost the regimental commander, Colonel William B. Carroll who was the first Union field officer to fall in the battle. After Carroll’s death, Lieutenant Colonel Marsh B. Taylor took command of the regiment, leading it through the remainder of the battle. The fighting was so fierce that the 10th Indiana ran out of cartridges and had to temporarily withdraw from battle to replenish their cartridge boxes. In the early afternoon, Brannan’s Division moved to the vicinity of the Poe house to fend off another Rebel attack, remaining in place until nightfall. The nearness of the Rebels prohibited the building of fires for warmth or cooking food, so the soldiers spent the night on the battlefield cold, hungry and waiting for daylight. At dawn on the 20th, Croxton’s Brigade moved north of the Poe house, and remained engaged until the Union center collapsed. Afterwards, Brannan fought to hold the northern shoulder of the penetration, and then conducted a fighting withdrawal to the Kelly house which helped to slow the Rebel breakthrough. As the afternoon progressed, the 10th Indiana helped cover the withdrawal from the Kelly house to Snodgrass Hill (part of Horseshoe Ridge). Atop Snodgrass Hill the 10th Indiana fought desperately until Thomas’ withdrawal around sundown. The 10th Indiana’s loss rate is a good indication of the intensity of combat at Chickamauga. In two days of combat the regiment lost 24 killed in action, 136 wounded, and six soldiers captured out of 366 soldiers available – a casualty rate over 43%.
After the disaster at Chickamauga, Rosecrans withdrew his forces into Chattanooga and passively allowed the Confederate army to surround the city. Losing patience with the situation in Tennessee, President Lincoln directed Grant to take charge of the newly created Division of the Mississippi. Grant immediately relieved Rosecrans of command of the Army of the Cumberland, replacing him with Thomas. Grant then focused on reopening the supply lines into Chattanooga, and building combat power to decisively defeat Bragg. After reopening his supply lines, Grant used Sherman’s army to try and outflank the Rebel positions ringing Chattanooga. Sherman’s attack stalled due to tough fighting put up by Cleburne’s Division, prompting Grant to order a diversionary attack by the Army of the Cumberland against the Rebel line on Missionary Ridge. Thomas’ veterans, still smarting from their rough handling at Chickamauga, exceeded their orders and assaulted up the steep expanse of Missionary Ridge, forcing Bragg to withdraw from Chattanooga for good.
During the battle, the 10th Indiana was part of Baird’s Division, 14th Corps (Palmer). To create an effective diversion, Thomas arrayed most of his army to attack on the Rebel defenses at the base of Missionary Ridge, with Baird’s Division providing flank support on the Federal left flank. Thomas’ troops started forward, forcing back the Rebel pickets, and taking the first line of Rebel fortifications. There the assault lines halted, but only for a short while; regimental and brigade commanders quickly realized that their best chance for safety lay in clearing the top of Missionary Ridge. Seizing the initiative, individual regiments advanced, pulling brigades, until Sheridan’s and Wood’s divisions were on the ascent, with Baird’s division still supporting the left flank. The terrain and vegetation canalized the movement, reducing the assault frontage to the width of the color guard with the regiment in column behind. The lead elements of both divisions reached the crest at the same, forcing the Rebel riflemen to flee down the other side of the ridge. Held up by terrain, Baird’s division reached the top later in time to break up a Rebel counterattack and finish clearing the ridge. The 10th Indiana suffered few casualties in the action due to the collapse of the Rebel defenses.
The Atlanta Campaign
Following the end of the Chattanooga campaign, Grant and Sherman used the winter of 1863-4 to prepare for a major campaign into the heart of the Deep South the following spring. While in winter quarters, a portion of the 10th Indiana re-enlisted on 14 January 1864, earning the status as Veterans. By June 1864, the 10th Indiana (still part of Baird’s division) was deeply involved in Sherman’s campaign to capture Atlanta, which fell on 2 September 1864. Immediately after the battle, Thomas directed the dissolution of the 10th Indiana with the veteranized soldiers transferred to the 58th Indiana. The remaining (non-reenlisting) soldiers returned to Indiana to muster out on 19 September 1864. Of 1270 officers and soldiers originally enlisted in August 1861, the regiment lost 8 officers, 177 enlisted men killed in action, or 15% of the assigned strength. The regiment suffered an additional 288 deaths due to disease or non-combat related accidents.
The 11th Indiana
Kentucky and Western Tennessee
After reorganizing in Indianapolis, the 11th Indiana, with Colonel Lew Wallace still in command, marched to Paducah, Kentucky arriving on 8 September 1861. The 11th Indiana was the first Federal regiment to enter the city, which ensured the critical port town remained firmly in the Union camp. Afterwards, Wallace was promoted to Brigadier and placed in division command, with Lieutenant Colonel George McGuiness assuming command of the 11th Indiana. The 11th garrisoned Paducah until early February 1862, and then left by river steamer to join General Grant’s army campaign to capture Fort Henry, Tennessee. On the morning of 6t February, the 11th Indiana marched across and through several partially frozen creeks to lead the attack on Fort Heinman, part of the Rebel works guarding Fort Henry. Under pressure from the Hoosier skirmishers, who were supported by well-armed gunboats, the Confederate garrisons quickly surrendered. The regiment skirmished briefly near Fort Henry, and then marched as part of Grant’s movement on Fort Donelson. By sundown on 14 February Grant had effectively isolated Fort Donelson, and after some light skirmishing, the Federals hunkered down for the night. At dawn the Rebel garrison launched a powerful breakout attempt. The 11th Indiana took part in the counterattack which penned the garrison in the fort, in the process losing 4 killed and 29 wounded.
Shiloh and Corinth
After briefly garrisoning Fort Henry, the 11th Indiana moved with Grant’s army to Pittsburg Landing. Grant’s subordinates failed to fortify their campsites in the vicinity of Shiloh church, which invited a powerful Rebel attack by General Albert Sidney Johnson’s Army on April 6th. Wallace’s Division was camped near Pittsburg Landing and was not involved in the fight until Grant ordered the division forward as reinforcements. Wallace took the wrong road, allegedly due to poor directions from one of Grant’s staff officer, and failed to arrive in time to affect the first day’s fight. Reinforced after dark, Grant determined to attack at sunup on 7 April 1862. Wallace’s division formed on the far right of the Union army, with the 11th Indiana forming the extreme right of Wallace’s division. At one point, Rebel forces overlapped the division flank, forcing the 11th Indiana, along with the 71st Ohio, to form a new line at a right angle to the main line to stop the enemy attack. In the thick of the fight, the 11th Indiana fought from sunup to sundown without relief, losing 11 killed and 52 wounded. After the battle, the army reorganized under the command of General Buell, and took part in the glacial advance on Corinth, Mississippi. On 28 May Buell made his move to encircle Corinth; unable to effectively resist the Rebel army destroyed their stores and withdrew before being surrounded. After the Rebel evacuation of Corinth, Wallace’s division marched to Memphis, arriving on 20 June 1862 after a march of 120 miles.
The Campaign for Vicksburg
After arrival at Memphis, the 11th Indiana briefly garrisoned Helena Arkansas. In the fall and winter of 1862, the Regiment engaged in several operations in Mississippi in support of General Grant’s campaign against Vicksburg. On 14 April 1863, the 11th Indiana joined McGinnis’s Brigade, Hovey’s Division, McClernand’s Corps, part of Grant’s army operating near Milliken’s Bend. McClernand’s Corps captured Grand Gulf, Mississippi, as part of Grant’s daring plan to cross the Mississippi downstream, and attack Vicksburg from the rear. Once across the river, the 11th fought at the battle of Port Gibson, capturing a Rebel artillery battery in exchange for one death and 24 wounded. After taking Port Gibson, the regiment marched on Vicksburg, living off the land in order to reduce the need for supplies. On 16 April, the 11th Indiana was hotly engaged at the Battle of Champion Hills, attacking into the teeth of the Confederate defenses, and capturing a key hilltop along with several Rebel cannons. The regiment fought off several Confederate counterattacks until Union reinforcements arrived to seal the victory. The regiment suffered heavily for their efforts, losing 167 casualties in the battle. After Champion Hills, the 11th Indiana fought in the siege of Vicksburg from 21 May to 04 July, when the Vicksburg garrison surrendered. During the siege the regiment lost 3 killed and 10 wounded. Immediately afterwards, the 11th Indiana marched in an expedition to Jackson, Mississippi, fighting several skirmishes on the way.
The 11th Indiana attacking at Vicksburg
The Shenandoah Valley
In August 1863, the regiment sailed for New Orleans, where it spent the fall performing several expeditions into Rebel held Louisiana. On 1 February 1864, the regiment reenlisted for an additional three years, earning the status as Veterans along with a 30 day furlough. After furlough, the regiment returned to the war in May 1864, joining Sheridan’s army operating in the Shenandoah Valley.\ Starting in August 1864, the regiment fought several minor skirmishes, before fighting in the battle of Opequan (Third Battle of Winchester). As part of Sheridan’s XIX Corps, the 11th Indiana attacked the Rebels early on 19 September 1864. At first the attack faltered due to constricted terrain and stout enemy resistance. The Federals took heavy casualties from enfilading cannon fire, and fell back to regroup. The Rebels counterattacked, and for a period of time the battle lines surged back and forth. Without orders, the 11th Indiana lunged forward in a successful counterattack, with the color sergeant Charles H. Seston in the front: “our line moved steadily forward, our color bearer, the gallant Seston, pressing steadily in advance of all, waving the dear old flag high in the air, regardless of the dangers surrounding him.” For his actions in rallying the regiment to victory, Sergeant Seston, of New Albany, received the Medal of Honor. . Furthermore, both Private Peter J. Ryan, of Vigo County, and Private John T. Sterling, of Marion County, earned the Medal of Honor for their actions in single handedly capturing a platoon of enemy infantry during the severest part of the battle. For their part in defeating the Rebels, the 11th Indiana suffered 81 casualties. After battling in several more skirmishes, the regiment fought in the battle of Cedar Creek, losing an additional 52 men. There the 11th Indiana took part in an attack on the main Rebel defenses atop Fisher’s Hill, which drove back the enemy skirmish line and captured important high ground. While the XIX Corps kept the Rebels fixed in their defenses, Sheridan maneuvered the remainder of his army on the enemy flank, driving the enemy from Fisher’s Hill in a complete rout. The Union victory cleared the enemy from much of the Shenandoah Valley, after which Sheridan’s forces conducted a scorched earth campaign to deprive the Rebels of supplies for the coming winter.
Afterwards, the 11th Indiana marched to Baltimore, arriving in January 1865, to garrison the city until the end of the war. The regiment mustered out in July 1865 and returned home to Indianapolis to a reception by Governor Morton on 4 August 1865. During their three plus years of campaigning, the 11th Indiana marched over 9300 miles. In all the 11th Indiana suffered 115 combat deaths, losing an additional 288 to disease and accidents.
The Citizen-Soldiers of Indiana made a decisive contribution to the successful suppression of the rebellion and the preservation of the Union. By January 1863, Indiana, with a population of only 1.3 million, had sent over 110,000 armed and equipped volunteers into battle. By the end of the war, 208,367 Hoosiers served in uniform, with 24,416 dying in battle or from disease or accident – a 12% loss rate. The 7th, 10th and 11th Indiana lost a total of 1105 men, roughly 5% of the total state loss in three regiments. The cold statistics only tell part of the story, since the three regiments amassed an impressive list of battlefield accomplishments, without which the course of the Civil War would likely have turned out in favor of the Confederacy. The accomplishments of each regiment were decisive to the conduct of several campaigns, shaped the successful outcome of the Civil War, and firmly established the reputation of Hoosiers as determined and reliable Citizen Soldiers. The reputation and accomplishments of the regiments in the Civil War was perpetuated by the units of the 151st Infantry regiment, which served in World War II, Vietnam (Company D, 151st Infantry), Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.
 Department of the Army Lineage and Honors certificate of the 151st Infantry Regiment, p. 3.
ibid, p. 3.
 Spears, James R.H, Hoosier Militiamen and the Civil War in Watt, William J. and Spears; James R.H. Indiana’s Citizen Soldiers: The Militia and National Guard in Indiana History. Indianapolis: Indiana State Armory Board, 1980, p. 51
 Stevenson, David. Indiana’s Roll of Honor, Volume I. Indianapolis: H.H. Dodd, 1864, p. 21.
 Thornbrough, Emma L. Indiana in the Civil War Era, 1850-1880. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau and Historical Society, 1965, p. 124.
 Spears, p. 53.
 Thornbrough, p. 125.
 Terrell, W.H.H. The Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana (Hereafter abbreviated as AG Report). Volume IV – 1861-1865. Indianapolis: S.M. Douglass, 1866, p. 62 – 73. Out of nine rifle companies, five were from Marion county, two from Montgomery, and one each from Vigo and Tipton counties
 Spears, p. 54.
 Stevenson, pp. 93-4.
 Ibid, p. 76.
 Ibid, p. 86.
 Ibid, p. 77.
 Western Virginia subsequently applied for statehood, and was admitted to the Union on 20 June 1863. The area remained under Union control for the remainder of the war. http://www.wvculture.org/history/statehood/statehood07.htm. Downloaded on 15 June 2011.
 Stevenson, p. 88.
 http://www.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/wv003.htm. Downloaded on 15 June 2011.
 Thornbrough, p. 143.
 Spears, p. 55.
 Thornbrough,p. 145.
 Skidmore, Richard S. (editor) The Civil War Journal of Billy Davis. Greencastle, IN: The Nugget Publishers, 1989, p. 119.
 Ibid, pp. 137-9.
 Ibid, p. 143.
 The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. (Hereafter abbreviated as O.R). Series 1, Volume XII, part 2, p. 255.
 AG Report. Volume II – 1861-1865. Indianapolis: W.R. Holloway, 1865, p. 47.
 O.R. Series 1, Vol. XXI, part 1, p. 932; Merrill, Catherine. The Soldier of Indiana in the War for the Union, Indianapolis: Merrill and Company, 1869, p.61.
 Merrill, p. 93.
 Johnson, Robert U. and Buell, Clarence C. (editors), Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (hereafter abbreviated as Battles and Leaders), Vol. III, New York: The Century Company, 1888, p. 273.
 Ibid, 284.
 AG Report, II, p. 47.
 http://www.homeofheroes.com/moh/citations_1862_cwh/opel.htm; Arville, Frank. Hoosiers in the Civil War. (n.c.) Nugget Publishers, 1993, p. 111.
 Fox, William F. Regimental Losses in the American Civil War 1861-1865. Albany N.Y. Albany Publishing Company, 1880, p. 448.
 Terrell, AG Report, II, p. 47.
 Thornbrough, 160. The hardest hit Indiana regiments suffered an average of 10-15% combat deaths.
 Fox, p. 464.
 Horne, Thomas. The Life of Major General George H. Thomas. New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1882, 54-5. Downloaded from http://www.aotc.net/Life1.htm on 08 July 2011.
 AG Report, II, p. 74.
 Ibid, p. 74. http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/tn003.htm. Downloaded on 08 July 2011.
 Battles and Leaders, volume II, pp. 718-21.
 McDonough, James L. War in Kentucky: From Shiloh to Perryville. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994, pp. 216-7.
 Ibid, p. 280.
 Indiana at Chickamauga: Report of the Indiana Commissioners, Chickamauga National Military Park. Indianapolis: Sentinel Printing Co., 1900, p. 55.
 Ibid, p. 138.
 Ibid, pp. 139-40.
 Simon, John Y. editor. The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant. Volume 9, July 7th – December 31st 1863. Carbondale IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1967. Accessed on 09 July 2011 from http://digital.library.msstate.edu/collections/document.php?CISOROOT=%2FUSG_volume&CISOPTR=3453&REC=0&CISOBOX=Rosecrans.
 Fullerton, Joseph S. The Army of the Cumberland at Chattanooga. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Volume III, pp. 725-6. Accessed on 08 July 2011 from http://www.aotc.net/Chattanooga.htm#Fullerton.
 Terrell, Vol II, p. 74.
 Ibid, p. 74.
 Department of the Army Lineage and Honors certificate of the 151st Infantry Regiment, p. 3.; Terrell, Vol I, Statistics and Documents Appendix, p. 38.
 Terrell, Vol I, Statistics and Documents Appendix, p. 8.
 Fox, p. 464.
 Terrell, William H.H. The Soldier of Indiana. p. 272.
 AG Report, II, p. 84.
 Scribner, Theo T. Indiana’s Roll of Honor, Vol. II, Indianapolis: A.D. Streight, 1866, p. 247.
 Ibid, pp. 248-9.
 Terrell, William H.H. The Soldier of Indiana. p. 371.
 Ibid, p. 377.
 Battles and Leaders, volume II, pp. 718-21.
 Ibid, pp. 271-3.
 AG Report, II, p. 47.
 Ibid, p. 47.
 http://www.homeofheroes.com/moh/citations_1862_cwq/seston.html.; Funk, Arville, Hoosiers in the Civil War. Indiana: Nugget Publishers, 1993, p. 111.
 http://www.homeofheroes.com/moh/citations_1862_cwq/sterling_john.html; http://www.homeofheroes.com/moh/citations_1862_cwq/ryan.html ; Funk, p. 111.
 Scribner, pp. 285-7.
 AG Report, II, p. 47.
 Fox, p. 464.
 Stevenson, p. 14.
 AG Report, volume I., Appendix, p. 4.